Password Hashing

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Hashing is a cryptographic process which can be used to check the integrity and authenticity of various types of inputs. It generally used in system authentication to avoid storing plain text password in databases, it also used to check files. Documents and other types of data.

For security reasons, you may wish to store passwords in hashed type. This guards against the chance that somebody who gains unauthorized access to the info will retrieve the passwords of each user within the system. Hashing performs a one-way transformation on a password, turning the password into another String, known as the hashed password. “One-way” means it’s practically not possible to travel the opposite manner — to show the hashed password back to the initial password. There are many mathematically complicated hashing algorithms that fulfil these desires. By default, the Personalization module uses the MD5 algorithm to perform a one-way hash of the passwords, and to store it in hashed form.

The hashed password value isn’t encrypted before it’s stored within the database. When a user tries to get access, the Personalization module takes the provided password, performs the same one-way hash and compares it to the database value. If the passwords match, then login is successful.

Difference between Encryption and Hashing:

1) Message Digest (MD5)

After finding severe security problems in MD4 — MD5 came as an advanced form of MD4. MD5 generates 128-bit outputs for a variable length of inputs. As a successor to MD4, it covered a lot of security threats however didn’t give full data security services. though wide used, the most problems being raised with the use of MD5 are its vulnerability and collisions.

2) Tiger algorithm

Tiger cipher algorithm is a faster and more efficient algorithm as compared to the MD5 and SHA families. it’s a 192-bit hashing system and is generally used in computers of the new era. Tiger2 is an advanced type of this algorithm that’s even more powerful than the Tiger algorithm.

3) Message Digest algorithm (MD4)

Message Digest algorithm (MD4) is a cryptographic hash function carrying a 128-bit digest. MD4 had a security flaw because of the first collision attack found in 1995. After that, few newer attacks also affected this hash function. Ronald Rivest generated MD4 in 1990 and has influenced designs of MD5, SHA-1, and RIPEMD algorithms.

SHA means that Secure Hashing Algorithm; it absolutely was developed for the first time by the National Security Agency. This algorithmic rule got updates repeatedly to enhance security flaws within the previous genre. Now, SHA-2 is being used by several companies for cryptographic functions.

Hans Dobbertin has designed the RIPMEND cryptographical hashing algorithm, that has a length of the 164-bit digest. it’s created using the EU project RIPE framework.

6) WHIRLPOOL algorithm

Vincent Rijmen and Paul Barreto have designed the WHIRLPOOL algorithm, that considers any message of a length less than 2256 bits and in return offers a 512-bit message digest. the first version is termed whirlpool-0, whereas the second version is called Whirlpool-T and also the latest version is termed Whirlpool.

Hashing is required at the time of comparing a huge quantity of data. you can create totally different hash values for various data. you can compare hashes too.

It is simple to keep and find records of hashed data.

You can use hashing in cryptologic applications like a digital signature.

Hashing creates random strings that help in avoiding information duplication.

Geometric hashing is used in computer graphics; it helps to find proximity problems in planes.

In Python code editor, enter the following command to import the constructor method of the

SHA-256 hash algorithm from the “hashlib” module:

to create an instance of the sha256 class:

Now, use the update() command to update the hash object:

Then, use the hexdigest() method to get the digest of the string passed to the update() method:

The digest is the output of the hash function.

Finally, print the hash variable to see the hash value in the console:

from hashlib import sha256

h.update(b’python1990K00L’)

hash = h.hexdigest()

Click on the “run” button at the top of the screen. On the console, you should see the following output:

827ccb0eea8a706c4c34a16891f84e7b

To recap, you provide the hash function a string as input and get back another string as output that represents the hashed input:

Hash (SHA-256):

827ccb0eea8a706c4c34a16891f84e7b

A virtue of a secure hash function is that its output is not easy to predict.

The hash for dontpwnme4 would be very different than the hash of dontpwnme5,

only the last character in the string changed and both strings would be adjacent in an alphabetically sorted list:

dontpwnme4

Hash (SHA-256):

4420d1918bbcf7686defdf9560bb5087d20076de5f77b7cb4c3b40bf46ec428b

dontpwnme5

Hash (SHA-256):

Python script used to calculate these values in case you need it:

from hashlib import sha256

hash = h.hexdigest()

Replace STRING with the string you desired, to hash and run it.

This property is known as the avalanche effect and it has the desirable effect that if an input is changed slightly, the output is changed significantly.

Main advantage of hashing is synchronization.

Hash tables turn out to be more efficient than search trees or any other table lookup structure. Due to this, they are widely used in many kinds of computer software’s, particularly for associative arrays, database indexing, caches and sets.

Hash collisions are practically un-avoidable. When hashing a random subsets of a large sets of possible keys.

Hash tables are quite inefficient when there are many collisions.

Hash table does not allow null values.

Originally published at https://www.technopython.com.

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